have been associated with acute tubular necrosis in small animals, especially cats. Several other pyridazine herbicides found the way to the market, such as Maleic hydrazide 381, Pydanon 382, Pyridate 383, Pyridafol 384, and Credazine 385 (Figure 23). No biological variability has been reported so far for CYSDV. B.U.W. The degree of renal epithelial loss is not sufficient to cause complete renal failure and, provided the degree of renal damage is small, complete function is regained. Extensively grazed stands of pigweed should be recognizable in the fields, lots, or pastures where the animals were confined in the previous 2 to 3 weeks. is seen in ruminants after consumption of new leaves or acorns. Combining characteristics of life cycles and tillage response of weed species is useful in predicting weed population shifts. Sequencing of the CP or HSP70 genes revealed that there were indeed two main groups, a “Western” subpopulation in the Mediterranean basin (Spain, Jordan, Turkey, France, Tunisia, and Lebanon) and America, and an “Eastern” subpopulation present in UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Iran (Rubio et al., 2001). Finden Sie Blühpflanzen nach Ihrer Farbe! At least 40% of the S. faberi and S. viridis plants emerge from the upper 1 cm of soil in no-tillage compared with approximately 25% in chisel-plow and less than 15% in moldboard-plow plots. Summary of an influence of environmental factor on selected bacterial OTUs in the soil environment is presented in Table 2.2. Rough … Cattle with advanced and severe nephrosis may exhibit a bleeding diathesis. There may also be a direct toxic effect on glomeruli, which decreases glomerular filtration. In contrast to the medicinal applications, the interest for the use of 1,2-diazines as agrochemicals has existed for a much longer time. Several new 1,2-diazines with insecticidal properties were also discovered. Höhe. Differences in emergence depths in different field tillage systems reflect differences in weed seed distribution in the soil. Renal failure may result from the effects of the nephrotoxin or soluble oxalates. Fig. album, may be prevalent in no-tillage fields prior to crop planting. Winter annual, biennial, and perennial species are well adapted to no-tillage, because there is little or no tillage to interrupt the life cycle. In subacute cases, impaired tubular resorption of solutes and fluids may lead to polyuria. The toxic principle is not known. The toxic principles are tannins and their breakdown products. album densities increased, stayed the same, or decreased in response to reduced tillage. In acute tubular nephrosis, urinalysis abnormalities are usually present before serum or plasma urea and creatinine concentrations are increased. Since tillage systems affect weed management, weed seed production, and soil disturbance, changing tillage systems changes the distribution and density of weed seed in agricultural soils. Weeds can be classified in many ways, and understanding weed life cycles is important in predicting population shifts and designing management strategies. Gałązka et al. The green, inconspicuous flowers are borne in short, compact clusters along with green spines. In 1964 BASF already launched the herbicide Chloridazon 374 (Figure 23). Pigweeds such as Amaranthus retroflexus are ubiquitous. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Sumitomo Chemical Co. reported that the combination of 1-(2-chloro-6-propylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-3-ylsulfonyl)-3-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea and cafenstrole gave a better herbicidal effect against Echinochloa oryzicola than when cafenstrole was used alone <2005JPP126415>. Protect Your Horses and Livestock From Toxic Plants A guide to identifying and controlling common, toxic noxious weeds and other toxic plant species. In cattle one of the first clinical signs is weight loss. theophrasti seedlings emerge from bare soil, and the majority of the Ab. Cattle, sheep, goats and pigs are susceptible to kidney failure from ingesting A. retroflexus. Unkrautamarant und als Zurückgebogener Amarant bezeichnet. Johannes Vogel, ein Spezialist für pflanzliche Notnahrung, zählt die Familie der Amarante („Fuchsschwänze“) zu seinen 12 weltweit wichtigsten, (auch) in der Wildnis zu findenden,  Nahrungspflanzen. theophrasti emerge from under surface residue. Bakuriani, Georgia (Photo: R. Bussmann) Azerbaijan: … Launched 1,2-diazine derivatives with agrochemical applications. Sie sind ideal für die schnelle, leichte, aber gehaltvolle Küche! Effect of tillage systems on depth of emergence of Setaria species under field conditions. In most studies, more diverse and dense populations of perennial weeds develop in conservation-tillage systems than where moldboard plowing is conducted. Two 300-kg steer calves had fluid-distended abdomens and extensive ventral subcutaneous edema suggesting urolithiasis.2 Duration of illness among affected cattle ranged from 1 to 14 days in one report.2 New cases may continue to develop for 5 to 10 days after removal from the source. Amaranthus retroflexus und Mercurialis annua (Einjähriges Bingelkraut) Amaranthus retroflexus und Chenopodium album (Weißer Gänsefuß) Amaranthus retroflexus und die Larven der Grünen Reiswanze (Nezara viridula) Verwandte Pflanzen: Amaranthus caudatus. It grows 2 to 3 feet tall and the lower stems are red or red-streaked with the color continuing down the taproot. It grows on every continent on … However, certain hormone-type herbicides (such as 2,4-D) may make pigweed more attractive to cattle. Die Pflanzen sind entweder (bei den Untergattungen Amaranthus und Albersia) einhäusig getrenntgeschlechtig (monözisch) oder (bei der Untergattung Acnida) zweihäusig getrenntgeschlechtig (diözisch). In: Hatfield J. L., Buhler D. D., and Stewart B. In acute cases the kidney is swollen and wet on the cut surface and edema, especially of perirenal tissues, may be apparent. Alle Amarantblätter, auch die der wilden Arten, sind leicht verdaulich und können wie Spinat, der sie ja verdrängt hat, zubereitet werden. Rohm and Haas Co. found the 6-arylpyridazin-3(2H)-one 395 to be interesting as it gave a good control when tested against Mexican bean beetle and two-spotted spider mite at 300 g ha−1 (Figure 25) <1996EUP738716>. Tillage is the primary cause of vertical seed movement in arable soils. Toxic nephropathy, without oxalate crystals, has been reported in cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and, rarely, in horses.1 The plants are often browsed lightly without harm, and poisoning is rare. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. Most poisonings occur in the late summer or fall. Amaranthus retroflexus is an annual, herbaceous weed. are potential nitrate accumulators and may contain some soluble oxalates. It is intriguing that there is not much activity in academia in the agrochemical application area. Fields, barnyards, and waste areas are … Lamb's quarter (Chenopodium album), a modest pollen producer, has a worldwide distribution. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B032301125X500285, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323357753000114, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128114100000167, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323298759000203, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148495000022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123943149000038, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008044992000701X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702052460000139, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489091181, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014, Konnie H. Plumlee DVM, MS, Dipl ABVT, ACVIM, ... Patricia A. Talcott, in, Melanie A. Breshears, Anthony W. Confer, in, Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease (Sixth Edition), Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats), Pediatric Allergy: Principles and Practice (Third Edition), Metagenomic Achievements in Microbial Diversity Determination in Croplands, Viruses and Virus Diseases of Vegetables in the Mediterranean Basin, Six-membered Rings with Two Heteroatoms, and their Fused Carbocyclic Derivatives, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Keywords: Medicinal Plants, silver nanoparticles, Amaranthus retroflexus The negative impact of monoculture on soil biological properties was also emphasized in the study of Acosta-Martinez et al. rough pigweed. This variable response is typified by Chenopodium album. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. Khevsureti, Georgia (Photo: R. Bussmann) Open image in new window . It is a serious problem weed in several field crops (e.g. Amaranthus retroflexus is a common species, it is usually found in wet fields, roadside ditches and waste places (Figs. In cattle there is a continuous mild hypocalcemia with signs reminiscent of that disease, which responds, in a limited way, to treatment with calcium. retroflexus may be best-suited to systems with moderate tillage, because its seeds are well-adapted to shallow burial. Several species of pigweed, particularly Amaranthus retroflexus, can be responsible for acute tubular necrosis and perirenal edema in pigs and cattle. An oxalate-induced nephrosis has been described in Tibetan spaniels with an inherited hyperoxaluria. Influence of tillage systems on densities of selected summer annual weed species in Zea mays and Glycine max production systems. Amaranthus retroflexus (A maranthaceae). As it is demonstrated, it is difficult to point on one of the most important factors influencing on all the bacterial OTUs abundance. There may also be ulcers in all or any part of the alimentary tract from the mouth to the colon if phenylbutazone was administered orally. Lemière, in Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III, 2008. A chronic oxalate nephrosis in ragdoll cats of unknown inheritance and etiology is also reported. Amaranthus retroflexus . and mushrooms, Oxalate in ethylene glycol or ascorbic acid, which is a metabolic precursor to oxalate, Primary hyperoxaluria caused by an inherited metabolic defect in Beefmaster calves, Tannins in the foliage of oak trees and acorns, Unidentified toxin in Amaranthus retroflexus in pigs, cattle, and lambs,2 in Narthecium asiaticum fed to cattle and Isotropis forrestii in ruminants, Mycotoxins, such as ochratoxins and citrinins, fumonisins in ruminants, Ingestion of Lophyrotoma interrupta (sawfly) larvae by cattle, Cantharidin in horses following ingestion of dead blister beetles in alfalfa hay and hay products, Most nonspecific endogenous or exogenous toxemias cause some degree of temporary nephrosis. Azotemia occurs when uremia is present. Kommt in Mitteleuropa wild bzw. Der aufrechte Stängel wird 0,2 bis 1,2 m hoch und ist häufig an der Spitze zurückgekrümmt. However, single strand chain polymorphism analyses on the CP gene suggested the presence of three groups, two of them being present in the Mediterranean basin (Rubio et al., 1999, 2001). Ruminants are at risk of nitrate poisoning if large amounts of immature pigweed stems high in nitrates are consumed. Species that germinate under cool soil conditions, such as Ch. Winter annual species germinate in the late summer and autumn, survive the winter, and flower the following spring. (3) There were differences in allele frequencies among life history stages at all localities in Amaranthus retroflexus and at three localities in both Carduus acanthoides and Pastinaca sativa. Diclomezine 386 was launched in 1987 by Sankyo and is a fungicidal pyridazine (Figure 23). The three of them, pH, salinity, and temperature, have a strongly evolutionary nature and usually the vast majority of bacteria species die after certain values of these factors are exceeded. Other winter annual species such as Bromus tectorum (downy brome) and Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse) have also been observed to infest no-tillage fields. VERWECHSUNGSMÖGLICHKEIT MIT GIFTIGER PFLANZE, VERWECHSUNGSMÖGLICHKEIT MIT ESSBARER PFLANZE, Art: Amaranthus retroflexus / Wilder Amarant. The average genetic distance in the CP or HSP70 regions between worldwide isolates was about 0.0025 (Rubio et al., 2001). Clinical signs generally begin following several days of ingesting the plant, although renal lesions have been identified within 24 h of ingestion. Proteinuria, glucosuria, enzymuria, and hematuria are initial changes on urinalysis in experimental toxic nephrosis. Pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.) careless weed. Toxic nephrosis in cattle and pigs has already occurred by the time clinical signs become apparent. Treatment should be directed at general supportive care for acute renal disease as outlined earlier. Its host range initially thought to be limited to cucurbits has been recently extended to several noncucurbit hosts including cultivated species (lettuce, bean) or weeds (Sida hederacea and Amaranthus retroflexus) (Wintermantel et al., 2009). 1 and 2). In garden. CYSDV can persist up to 9 days in the vector, the longest retention time reported for a whitefly-transmitted crinivirus (Wisler et al., 1998). The kidneys may be swollen and pale. Histopathologic changes within the kidney include interstitial edema, scattered hemorrhages and proximal tubular degeneration and necrosis. Jung und gründlich gesäubert, auch roh. All CYSDV isolates from the “Western” group shared 99–100% nucleotide sequence identity, suggesting a common and recent origin (Yakoubi et al., 2007). Resistances to CYSDV have been identified in genetic resources of cucumber and melon, and partially resistant commercial cucumber cultivars are available. The concentration of weed seed in no-tillage decreases logarithmically with increasing depth. Die winzigen, energiereichen, aber glutenfreien Samen werden wie Reis und Hirse verwendet. A fire which clears away competing vegetation can allow the establishment of rough pigweed. for a discussion of tannins. It works via blocking of the sodium channel in neurons, a mode-of-action first identified in pyrazolines . The effect of tillage practices on the population dynamics of summer annual weed species is complex and involves several factors. Claims. Code created in: 2004-04-29. The response of small-seeded summer annual dicotyledon weed species to changes in tillage practices has been variable among weed species and experiments. Signs appear within five to ten days after exposure and include trembling, weakness, incoordination, knuckling, and almost complete rear leg paralysis. Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia with elevated CK, urea nitrogen, and creatinine are reported. In sites, where wild oat (Avena fatua L.) was cultivated, the dominants were bacteria of Rhizobiales order, and Rhodobacteraceae and Comamonadaceae families (Ishaq et al., 2017), whereas winter wheat had simulative effect on bacterial representatives of orders: Bacillales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales, and Myxococcales (Ishaq et al., 2017). +, increased density with reduced tillage. Illness in oxalate poisoning occurs not only because of renal disease but also because of neuromuscular dysfunction, the result of the hypocalcemia produced by chelation of serum calcium by oxalates. Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. The recent development of Co. canadensis that is resistant to glyphosate makes it an even more troublesome species. Bradyrhizobium japonica reached higher abundance in unmanaged sites, whilst Thiobacillus and Nitrosococcus species preferred vineyard for colonization (Holland et al., 2016). theophrasti seedlings emerge from cracks in the soil. Strands of white fibrous plant material from mature pigweed stalks may be found in rumen contents. In feeding trials using adult and weanling rabbits, A retroflexus did not produce indications of renal involvement in rabbits. The plant contains an unidentified compound that damages kidneys and, in certain circumstances, toxic amounts of soluble oxalates and nitrate1,2,3. Alternaria alternata was the most common species. Amaranthus retroflexus (AMARE) Menu. Metals: mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, and organic copper compounds; nephrosis can be reproduced experimentally in horses by the oral administration of potassium dichromate and mercuric chloride, including topical blistering agents containing mercuric chloride, Antimicrobials, such as aminoglycosides, and overdosing with neomycin and gentamicin in the treatment of calves; treatment with tetracycline preparations accidentally contaminated by tetracycline degradation compounds and repeated daily dosing with long-acting oxytetracycline preparations may induce toxicity; treatment with sulfonamides, Horses treated with vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulfite) administered by IM or IV injection, Horses treated with vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and cholecalciferol (D3), Treatment of horses with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine; dose rates of more than 8.8 mg/kg BW of phenylbutazone per day for 4 days are likely to cause nephrosis; doses of 4.4 mg/kg BW are considered to be safe, but toxicity is enhanced by water. Early emergence may allow such species to suppress later emerging weeds or result in a significant portion of the population being destroyed by tillage or herbicide prior to crop planting. Redroot pigweed also contains an unknown toxicant that causes renal tubular nephrosis. Weeds of agronomic crops are a unique group of plant species because of their ability to infest and often thrive in intensively disturbed habitats. Although goldenrod and sunflower are primarily insect pollinated, they can release moderate amounts of pollen, which may persist at higher levels as ragweed pollen is waning. Moldboard plowing results in the most uniform distribution of seed over soil depths. Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) is another small-seeded summer annual dicotyledon species that has responded inconsistently to changes in tillage systems. The toxic principle is not known. Hypoproteinemia may be present. (1998) and Liu et al. Table 2.2. Another significant portion of the Ab. A real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to detect the virus in individual whiteflies (Gil-Salas et al., 2007). SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Rough pigweed seeds are an important part of the seedbank in many habitats, even when plants are almost absent . The most commonly reported change in annual weed populations with decreased tillage is an increase in summer annual grass species, including S. faberi, S. viridis (green foxtail), S. glauca (yellow foxtail), Panicum dichotomiflorum (fall panicum), and Cenchrus incertus (field sandbur) (Table 2). This happens after introducing a herd or group of animals to a pasture or field where the plant is abundant, but desirable forage is not. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Pigs allowed access to pastures or lots containing pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) may be poisoned. The usual presentation of NSAID toxicosis in horses is gastrointestinal ulceration, including right dorsal colitis, Ketoprofen in sheep at 30 mg/kg IV, once2; renal toxicity may be facilitated by concomitant activation of the alternative complement pathway, Benzimidazole compounds used as anthelmintics; only some of them but including thiabendazole, Oxalate in fungi, e.g., Penicillium spp. The access to partial sequences allowed the development of specific RT-PCR primers (Célix et al., 1996). These data suggest that the safe-site concept should be extended below the soil surface to the depth where soil surface conditions influence germination conditions and that soil cracks may be a factor in weed emergence patterns. Richard W. Weber, in Pediatric Allergy: Principles and Practice (Third Edition), 2016. Sankyo Agro Co. for instance patented 6-chloro-3-(3-chloro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridazin-4-ol as a new herbicidal 1,2-diazine <2004JPP284970>. Basic information. Bild 1: Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz wird auch als Wilder Amarant bzw. Several species of pigweed, particularly Amaranthus retroflexus, can be responsible for acute tubular necrosis and perirenal edema in pigs and cattle. Redroot pigweed also contains an unknown toxicant that causes renal tubular nephrosis. It is often difficult to determine whether changes in population dynamics are due to biological properties of the weed species or differences in the effectiveness of control practices. Rauhaariger Fuchsschwanz, Krummer Fuchsschwanz, Zurückgebogener Amarant Blütezeit: Juli bis September. Introduced as a weed in the Euromediterranean region, Caucasus, Siberia and Russian Far East, Central Asia, China, Japan, parts of … Agriculture Handbook No. Clinical signs may not be referable to the urinary system. 991 1753 . Herkunft & Verbreitungsgebiet. It is an annual spreading by seeds which have a long viabilityand are dispersed principally by wind and … The presence of surface residue increases soil moisture and reduces soil crusting compared with bare soil, thus providing adequate moisture conditions for germination for a longer period of time. Weed species that have the ability to germinate and become established when the seeds are at or near the soil surface have the greatest potential to increase under conservation-tillage systems. As suggested by Lupwayi et al. Rabbits fed Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) did not develop lesions of renal toxicosis reported in other species fed this plant. Source: Buhler D. D. (1998) Tillage systems and weed population dynamics and management. Oak toxicosis (Quercus spp.) In agreement with this observation the (−)-(R)-enantiomer proved to be completely inactive. The magnitude of changes in summer annual grass densities has varied among experiments, but the potential for rapid changes in density and emergence patterns of these weed species clearly exists. Epidemic curves are generally best fitted to either the Gompertz or logistic regression models (Ruiz et al., 2006). (2006), crop rotation cycles had positive effect on microbial diversity. It has already been reported in 11 Mediterranean countries (Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey) in protected and open field cucurbit crops (CABI/EPPO, 2004; Papayiannis et al., 2005; Yakoubi et al., 2007). Other herbivorous species are likely susceptible, although the disease was not able to be reproduced in rabbits fed A. retroflexus (Schamber and Misek, 1985). For example, in soils under Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root pigweed), increase of OTUs belonging to Proteobacteria phylum and Sphingomonadales orders, as well as Rhizobiales and Myxococcales, was confirmed (Ishaq et al., 2017). Redroot pigweed, pigweed, and careless weed are common names for some Amaranthus spp. Auch die Wurzeln sind dem Magen zuträglich, vor allem von Pflanzen, die noch keine Blüten gebildet haben. Patented 1,2-diazine derivatives with agrochemical applications. Established winter annual plants preempt space, suppress summer annual species, and can be very competitive with summer annual crops. Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. In peracute cases, such as those caused by vitamin K3 administered by injection, there may be colic and stranguria. Oxalate-induced tubular necrosis occurs in sheep and cattle after ingestion of toxic quantities of oxalates that accumulate in plants of various genera, such as Halogeton, Sarcobatus, Rheum, and Rumex. Recently, via metagenomic tools, Ishaq et al. 20 bis 80 Zentimeter. Indoxacarb is sold as a 3:1 mixture of the (active) (S)-isomer and (inactive) (R)-isomer. “+” means positive correlation, “–” negative correlation, and ns—no significance. Amaranthus powellii: sepals of fruit-bearing flowers acute at apex and inflorescence with few, rigid, widely spaced branches of flowers (vs. A. retroflexus, with sepals of fruit-bearing flowers rounded to truncate at apex and inflorescence with few to many, slender, lax branches of flowers). Amaranthus tricolor cv. For publication in journals, books or magazines, permission should be obtained from the original photographers with a copy to EPPO. Family: Amaranthaceae Common Names: Amaranth, Pigweed Description: Amaranth grows in disturbed soil from dry to moist climates. Rapid growth early in the spring can also make winter annual species difficult to control with herbicides if allowed to grow until or after the time of crop planting. They also reported synergistic herbicidal effects (weeds of wheat fields) for combinations of ethyl 2-chloro-4-fluoro-5-(4-methyl-5-trifluoromethyl-3-pyridazinon-2-yl)phenoxyacetate with for instance bromoxynil <2000JPP136104> and proved that several representatives of the 3,6-disubstituted 4,5-diarylpyridazine family 389 are useful to control Pyricularia oryzae as a fungicidal activity of ≥90% was observed <2006WO001175>. Although pigweeds do contain some oxalates, the levels are low and the clinical syndrome and lesions caused by pigweed toxicosis are not consistent with those seen in oxalate nephrosis (Burrows and Tyrl, 2001). CYSDV epidemics depend on whitefly populations. The compound 392 however served as a key template for further research and finally led to the oxadiazine insecticide Indoxacarb 393 which has been launched by Dupont Crop Protection in 2000 (Figure 25). Anyhow, even in respect to pH, it is impossible to state that its effect on bacterial OTU is always positive or always negative, because, as presented in Table 2.2, positive correlations were found for Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Armatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, and Gemmatimonadetes and negative for Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria. (2004). Nitrogen (N) pulse is a frequent event in agroecosystems caused by fertilization. Control of pigweed in pastures and holding pens with herbicides may be practical. Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz (Amaranthus reflexus) wird treffend auch als Wilder Amarant und als Rauhaariger Amarant bezeichnet. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 366. ausgewildert vor: JA! Blütenfarbe(n) Grün, Gelb. Amaranthus retroflexus L. Zurückgekrümmter Fuchsschwanz, Rauhaariger Amarant, Amaranthaceae - Fuchsschwanzgewächse Hochsommerblüher, VII–IX, 20–120 cm hoch, sommergrün, einjährig Der Zurückgekrümmte Fuchsschwanz stammt ursprünglich aus Nordamerika und ist vom Menschen mittlerweile fast weltweit verbeitet worden. Short (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and giant (A. trifida) ragweeds predominate in the eastern states through the Central Plains, with false (A. acanthicarpa) and western (A. psilotachya) ragweed common in the Rocky Mountain, Great Basin, Arid Southwest and California Lowlands (Figure 20-2C). Sie schmecken ähnlich wie Rote Rüben. Field trials on vegetables and cotton against fall armyworm, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, and tobacco budworm had activities as low as 10–20 g ha−1. Understanding the responses of nitrogen metabolisms in native crops and invasive weeds to N pulses is essential in investigating the invasive mechanism of invasive weeds. In no-tillage systems, there has often been a marked drop in the variety of annual species. Extra-renal lesions include edema and ulceration of the digestive tract. Their pollen grains are very similar and difficult to discriminate by species. Mexico. Celosia argentea. Was tut sich im Garten und bei den Wildpflanzen? However, seed depth in the soil appears to be the most important factor. vulgaris . theophrasti seedlings when a field has not been tilled the previous two growing seasons. Brompyrazon 375, Norflurazon 376, Metflurazon 377, Oxapyrazon 378, Flufenpyr 379, and Dimidazon 380 are structurally closely related herbicides (Figure 23). are potential nitrate accumulators and may contain some soluble oxalates. Moldboard-plow plots have fewer weed seeds in the upper 20 cm of soil than chisel-plow or no-tillage plots after 5 years. Histologically there is necrosis and desquamation of tubular epithelium, and hyaline casts are present in the dilated tubules. Under-appreciated as a source of hay fever, nettle produces large amounts of small, pale pollen. theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur), and Cassia obtusifolia (sicklepod) as tillage is reduced (Table 2). Amaranthus spp. Integrated weed and soil management, pp 223–246. Open image in new window. See the section on Kidney and Lower Urinary Tract, Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats), Oak Toxicity: Acute Tubular Necrosis (Quercus Spp.) In acute renal disease of horses, hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia can be present, although this is not the usual finding. Swine have been poisoned when fed redroot pigweed and by grazing it. Norflurazon for instance is a crop-protection agent, used for the cultivation of cotton, tree fruit, and vines. Wir lieben Pflanzen, naturnahe Lebensweisen und die Lust am Neuen! Hervé Lecoq, Cécile Desbiez, in Advances in Virus Research, 2012. (2011) stated greater reduction in fresh and dry weight of leaf and stem of Amaranthus hybridus due to infection by Amaranthus mosaic virus. Amaranthus retroflexus (A maranthaceae). Clinical signs include weakness, ataxia, knuckling of pasterns, recumbency, paralysis and coma; death occurs within 1–2 days of onset of signs. Sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella) is considered a moderate hay fever inducer; curly or yellow dock (R. crispus), is a lower pollen producer but a common plant. A preponderance of the literature indicates that weed flora associated with reduced-tillage systems favor perennial monocotyledon and dicotyledon species. Cushing's syndrome (chronic hyperadrenocorticism pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction) is more common in horses and includes characteristic signs of polyuria, glycosuria, debilitation, hirsutism, polyphagia, and hyperglycemia. In: Hatfield J. L., Buhler D. D., and Stewart B. Compound 396, another representative of this class, gave 95% control of Plasmopara viticola on grape plants (Figure 25) <1998EUP835865>. In protected crops, methods for controlling CYSDV are similar to those applied for CVYV (see Section III.A). is seen in ruminants after consumption of new leaves or acorns. A. These species tend to be small-seeded and are represented by small-seeded, annual dicotyledon and most annual grass species. Amaranthus retroflexus (AMARE) Menu. Goldenrod, Solidago spp, is a showy late summer flower which has been blamed for much of the misery caused by the less conspicuous ragweed. The primary source of arable-response, summer annual weed species is the weed seed bank in the soil, with the largest source of seed being that produced in previous years in the same field. Thus, these species can rapidly infest fields (often during the first year) when tillage is eliminated. In greenhouse research, Ab. Co. canadensis can infest no-tillage fields very rapidly because it is commonly found in field edges and roadsides, produces many wind-disseminated seeds, is tolerant to many commonly used herbicides, and can become established under a wide-range of soil and climatic conditions, making it well-adapted to the no-tillage soil environment. Seeds are small, shiny, and black. Mean seedling emergence depths in no-tillage are the least, followed by chisel-plow and moldboard-plow systems in two soil types (Table 3). Conversely, seeds of large-seeded species remain near the soil surface in conservation-tillage systems, inhibiting establishment. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in winter annual, biennial, and perennial weed species. A. Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz ist in ein häufiges, wärmeliebendes – und gut essbares -  „Unkraut“. A combination of polyuria and glycosuria is an uncommon finding in large animals and is usually caused by nephrosis. USDA, 1970. If tillage is removed from the system, these seedlings survive and grow during the autumn and winter and are established at the start of the second year. To address this issue, research has been conducted to separate various aspects of tillage–weed species–weed-control efficacy interactions to elucidate the mechanisms of weed population shifts. Conservation-tillage systems have the potential to increase densities and species diversity of perennial weeds, but management practices such as crop rotation, selective application of glyphosate or other herbicides, and interrow cultivation can prevent perennial weed species from increasing to levels that reduce crop yields or increase production costs. Responses of soybean and five weeds to CO2 enrichment under two temperature regimes. Summer annual species are usually the most troublesome weeds in production systems dominated by summer annual crops, because they are well-adapted to the environment created by the production systems (i.e., similar life cycle, high fertility, annual disturbance, production in rows, and herbicide use). Depression, weakness, trembling, and incoordination may be noted initially. Species most rapidly and commonly observed are winter annual and biennial species that are characterized by an inverse tillage response. Plantains (Plantago spp) are common weeds, which, while moderate pollen producers, have a long season, from spring into fall. These weed species are unable to complete their life cycles in association with summer annual crops if the soil is disturbed after harvest or prior to crop planting the following spring. There are also examples of commercialized insecticidal 1,2-diazines: the cholinesterase inhibitor Pyridaphenthion 387 (1974, Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals) and the energy metabolism disruption agent Pyridaben 388 (1991, Nissan Chemicals) (Figure 23). 2c) … Table 2. Numerous annual or perennial weeds are significant inducers of hay fever. In no-tillage systems, weed populations shift toward inverse- and intermediate-response species. Ruminants are at risk of nitrate poisoning if large amounts of immature pigweed stems high in nitrates are consumed. Hence, noted by researchers, decrease or increase in the abundance of OTUs is the effect of the sum of many environmental factors, both physical, chemical, and biological. Figure 23. However, new seedlings of winter annual and biennial species may emerge under the canopy from seeds in the seed bank or that move in from adjacent areas. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 39(2):94-96; 33 ref. Preventing exposure and possible ingestion of large amounts of the plant, especially by cattle or pigs unaccustomed to eating it, is recommended. Coagulative necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules is also reported in cattle.2 Oxalate crystals are seldom seen. Die Perigonblätter der weiblichen Blüten haben eine Stachelspitze am Ende des Mittelnervs, die Blütenstände fühlen sich deshalb rau an. Rutigliano et al. The most common response among annual dicotyledon species has been reduced density of large-seeded species such as Ab. Amaranthus spp. As an obligate initial community species, rough pigweed needs bare, disturbed sites in order to establish [26,38]. Conformationally restricted analogs such as 392 showed excellent activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran pests (Figure 25). For example, weed populations in reduced-tillage systems where summer annual crops are grown are dominated by arable- and intermediate-response summer annual species, because the soil is disturbed annually and management practices favor summer annual species. Researchers of Bayer Cropscience patented pyridazin-4-ylcarboxamide 394 since in Spodoptera frugiperda corn sheet disk assays at 500 g ha−1 100% protection was found after 7 days (Figure 25) <2006WO000333>. Changes in the population dynamics of summer annual dicotyledon species with changing tillage practices have been less consistent. S. faberi seed germinating on the soil surface has an establishment percentage similar to seed planted 1–4 cm deep, but establishment is reduced by 50% when the seeds are planted 6 cm deep. (eds. Soil treatment with this pyridazinol revealed a strong growth inhibition of for instance Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus without damage to corn. Your trusted lab partner for Pigweed Spiny (Amaranthus spinosus) IgE testing, Viracor Eurofins delivers your results faster, when it matters most. The results of this study showed that the alcoholic extract of Amaranthus retroflexushad an antibacterial properties that can be considered as an adjunct to further studies for in vivo conditions and replacement with common chemical agents in the treatment of infections. Buhler, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014. Even today Chloridazon is still used for the cultivation of sugar beet and red table beet. (2017) observed an increase of soil biological activity when direct sowing in monoculture was implemented. Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) in the east and several western sages (Artemisia spp) are important pollen producers in the late summer, rivaling the importance of ragweed in the western states. The toxic principle is likely a group of phenolic compounds present in the leaves. Zu finden ist er auf nahrhaftem Boden in Äckern, besonders gerne in Maisfeldern, stammt er doch wie auch der Mais aus Mexiko! Changes that occur in the dynamics of annual weed communities as a function of tillage practices are regulated by species present in the field, biology of the species, and efficacy of weed-management practices. Der obere Teil der Wurzel ist oft auffällig rot. In addition to classification by life cycle, a classification appropriate to understanding weed-population dynamics under different tillage systems follows: Arable-response weed species that require periodic, regular disturbance of the soil for survival; Inverse-response weed species that require undisturbed soil for survival; Intermediate-response weed species that survive in both disturbed and undisturbed soil. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). In phenylbutazone poisoning the renal lesion is specifically a renal medullary necrosis. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Microscopic lesions are those of toxic nephrosis and include widespread necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in cattle and pigs. ). Winterhärtezone (USDA) Z5 – bis -23 °C. Your trusted lab partner for Pigweed Rough (Amaranthus retroflexus) IgE testing, Viracor Eurofins delivers your results faster, when it matters most. Pellitory (Parietaria spp) is found throughout the zones. Redroot pigweed (Figs. Die Pflanze selbst verträgt keinen Frost, überdauert jedoch als Samen auch frostige Winter. It has rapidly replaced BPYV in Southern Spain and was recently introduced in the United States, where it causes severe epidemics. Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz (Amaranthus reflexus) wird treffend auch als Wilder Amarant und als Rauhaariger Amarant bezeichnet.. Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz ist in ein häufiges, wärmeliebendes – und gut essbares - „Unkraut“. When the soil is tilled in the spring, rosettes and seedlings of winter annual and biennial species recruited during the previous growing season are destroyed. Kidneys are pale and normal to swollen in size. Treatment for specific toxins may be available, as described elsewhere in the text. Die ganze Pflanze ist weißlich blassgrün, im oberen Teil dicht behaart. Overview → Pests; Pathways; Reporting; Photos; Documents; Overview . Maes, G.L.F. Changes in the weed seed bank occur with time and weed-management programs. The slow degradation of the compound combined with the difficulties to prepare it on large scale led to the decision not to pursue commercialization. If there is sufficient tubular damage, there may be back leakage of glomerular filtrate into the interstitium. (2017) found that the monoculture soils are characterized by lower values of enzymatic activity, microbial biomass, and nitrogen content. Zur sicheren Unterscheidung der ca. In acute nephrosis there is obstruction to the flow of glomerular filtrate through the tubules caused by interstitial edema and intraluminal casts. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. CYSDV is one of the most damaging recent emerging viruses in cucurbits. Die unscheinbaren grünlichen Blüten sitzen in dichten ährigen Blütenständen. The present disclosure enables a multivalent approach to inhibiting pathogen infection in plant and human and non-human animal subjects and to ameliorate damage to susceptible subjects. Familie . The combined effect is oliguria and uremia. The rapid appearance of winter annual species does not appear to result from differences in innate competitive ability relative to summer annual species, but rather from the timing of disturbance, which changes competitive hierarchies. In most cases, the other environmental factors change the rate of microbial metabolic activity without any effect on their structure and/or functions. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. EPPO Code: AMARE ; Preferred name: Amaranthus retroflexus ; Authority: Linnaeus ; Notes. After absorption from the intestine, calcium oxalates precipitate in either vessel lumens or walls or within renal tubules, where they cause obstruction and epithelial cell necrosis. The two major tumbleweeds found in the Central Plains, Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and burning bush (Kochia scoparia), are introduced and have expanded throughout the central states to the gulf and California coasts. The sorrels and docks pollinate earlier than many weeds, coinciding with the grass pollen season. Dilated tubules and tubules filled with necrotic debris are often present and interstitial fibrosis may be present in chronic cases. CYSDV is efficiently transmitted on a semipersistent mode by B. tabaci biotype B and Q prevalent in the Mediterranean basin, but only poorly by biotype A, that occurs in America. (2004) indicated that vegetation cover has important influence on not only soil properties but also on soil microbial biomass (SMB), because it guarantees the input of organic matter into the soil and also impresses protecting effect against soil erosion. 70810S - Pigweed Rough Amaranthus retroflexus IgE - … (eds.) Tremmel DC, Patterson DT, 1993. Amaranthus retroflexus L., also known as redroot pigweed, is an invasive and cosmopolite plant belonging to Amaranthus genus, anciently used as food sources. Junge Blätter sehr mild, spinatähnlich, roh oder gekocht essbar, nach der Blüte werden die Blätter bitter. The toxic principle is likely a group of phenolic compounds present in the leaves. vulgaris var. Therefore, the general statement that perennial weeds increase as tillage decreases must be made with caution. No Ab. N-Arylureas of 3-aryl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridazines 391 for instance have shown to be very active (Figure 25). 1. In Veterinary Medicine (Eleventh Edition), 2017. In different studies at different locations, Ch. Amaranthus retroflexus. In Europe, Amaranthus retroflexus is one of the ten weed species of greatest economic importance. Nordamerika. In the chisel-plow system, more than 30% of the weed seeds are in the upper 1 cm of soil and seed concentration decreases linearly with depth. These four major ragweed plants strongly cross-react.27 Cocklebur (Xanthium commune) and the marshelders (Iva spp) are related to ragweed, but are of lesser significance. The number of whiteflies infesting a crop at an early stage is a good predictor of the outcome of the disease (Ruiz et al., 2006). Diabetes mellitus is rare in horses and extremely rare in ruminants. Many systemic diseases such as septicemia cause temporary tubular nephrosis. Changes in seed depth in the soil and the corresponding differences in emergence depth may contribute to shifts among weed species. In the last decade there appeared several new patents dealing with new 1,2-diazine representatives with an interesting and promising agrochemical profile. Kidney infections are generally individual animal problems and cows may have the history of a prior infection from a retained placenta, mastitis, pneumonia etc. (2016) estimated higher α-diversity (expressed by bacterial richness) in vineyard rather than in uncultivated soils; however, in respect to fungi communities, those differences were not confirmed. Renal injury from pigweed has been reported in pigs, cattle and sheep. In Mitteleuropa ist er als eingebürgert zu betrachten und … Familie: Amaranthaceae. Redroot pigweed is a large, coarse, annual with red stems and simple, egg-shaped, wavy-margined, alternate leaves. Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) is another small-seeded summer annual dicotyledon species that has responded inconsistently to changes in tillage systems. Photos. Gajda and Martyniuk (2005) and Gałązka et al. Increases in perennial weed populations vary among sites because tillage interacts with weed-management practices, environment, and initial perennial weed populations. −, decreased density with reduced tillage. Most cases of nephrosis are caused by the direct action of toxins, but hemodynamic changes may contribute to the pathogenesis. Correlations Between Environmental Parameters and Bacterial OTUs. Ultrasonographically, renal changes are seen in foals receiving high daily doses of phenylbutazone. From: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014, Konnie H. Plumlee DVM, MS, Dipl ABVT, ACVIM, ... Patricia A. Talcott, in Clinical Veterinary Toxicology, 2004. Conyza canadensis (horseweed) is one of the most common and troublesome winter annual weeds in no-tillage systems in the central and eastern USA and an excellent example of an inverse-tillage response winter annual species. Figure 25. Treatment with IV calcium and magnesium solutions may correct the serum electrolyte values, but cattle may remain in sternal recumbency or respond briefly.3. maize), as well as in vegetables, orchards and grape vines. Ruminants … Changes in soil surface characteristics and disturbance patterns in no-tillage systems create an environment where winter annual and biennial species may become established and complete their life cycle. Since the first genetic studies CYSDV genetic variability also appeared particularly low (Aguilar et al., 2003; Rubio et al., 2001). Deep burial of seed of small-seeded species by moldboard plowing reduces germination and emergence. D.D. In addition, summer annual species that do not require burial for establishment are well-adapted to no-tillage systems. In a typical incident, cattle or swine become recumbent within 5 to 10 days after ingesting large amounts of pigweed. Polyuria is present in chronic cases. Signs may suggest hypocalcemia in cows, and some animals respond briefly to IV calcium. Bei den weiblichen Blüten können Blütenhüllblätter fehlen, oder es sind ein bis fünf vorhanden und ein Stempel. Because of the growth habit and ability to adjust photosynthetic responses to temperature, many winter annual species can grow even during the winter. The pigweed family includes several different species capable of producing toxicosis, but Amaranthus retroflexus is the species most commonly associated with disease in domestic animals (Burrows and Tyrl, 2001). (2017) found that cropping system resulted in promotion of some bacterial groups’ growth. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) poisoning of cattle in southern Brazil. Source: Buhler D. D. (1998) Tillage systems and weed population dynamics and management. Gross lesions of pigweed toxicosis include widespread edema, most prominently around the kidneys, rectum and omentum. Overview; Pests; Pathways; Reporting; Photos → Documents; Tools Propose photos. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. 2. Selected Weeds of the United States. Diarrhea may be present that is sufficiently intense to cause severe clinical dehydration. In a no-tillage system, more than 60% of all weed seeds are found in the upper 1 cm of soil and few seeds are found at more than 10 cm. Pellitory is a major inducer of pollinosis in the Mediterranean basin. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. kommt auch mit ungünstigeren Bedingungen zurecht, Lasagne mit Spinat und Ragù alla Bolognese, One-Pot-Pasta mit Spinat oder anderem Grünzeug. Melanie A. Breshears, Anthony W. Confer, in Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease (Sixth Edition), 2017. It is widely distributed in cultivated soils, gardens, cattle lots, and waste areas. Several nephrotoxic species of lilies (Lilium spp., Zantedeschesia spp., and Hemerocallis spp.) Agnieszka Wolińska, in Microbial Diversity in the Genomic Era, 2019. Symptoms were similar to those caused by BPYV including severe yellowing of the older leaves. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 73(4):1249-1260. A representative example is the group of Qian in Dalian working on the development of new pyridazin-3(2H)-one containing insecticides <2003JFA152>. A study of the local evolution of CYSDV in Spain over 8 years revealed a particularly low molecular diversity compared to the populations of other plant viruses; no evidence for selection related to host adaptation was found (Marco and Aranda, 2005). In the chronic stages the urine is isosthenuric and may or may not contain protein. The risk of toxic tubular nephrosis seems to be associated with ingestion of large amounts of the green plant by animals that are not accustomed to eating it. Zu finden ist der Neophyt weiters auf Zuckerrübenfeldern, in Gärten und Weinbergen, an Wegrändern und Flussufern und  als Ruderalpflanze auf ungenutzten bzw. These signs include depression, dehydration, anorexia, hypothermia, a slow or an elevated heart rate, and weak pulse. Amaranth is the name given to a group of approximately 70 species of annual or short-lived perennial plants in the genus Amaranthus including several species of aggressive edible weeds native to the US such as Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed). Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press. Several methods have been used to detect CYSDV. Weed species not previously observed in fields planted to summer annual crops have rapidly appeared following elimination of preplant tillage. Amaranthus retroflexus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae ). The (+)-(S)-enantiomer was found to be twice as active as the racemic mixture. Samen können für Müsli und Aufläufe und Suppeneinlagen verwendet werden, oder als Mehl für Brot und Gebäck (glutenfrei). Beta vulgaris ssp. Excepting the Florida and Southeast Coastal zones, nettle (Urtica spp) is common. It should be emphasized that there are many parameters that modify the structure and function of the bacterial community in environment. CYSDV is not transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly. In Spain, CYSDV was first reported in 1992, and since then it has become the most prevalent virus in protected cucurbit crops often reaching 100% infected plants at the end of the crop. Table 3. Management practices such as selective application of glyphosate to tall-growing perennial weeds, the use of crop cultivars resistant to herbicides such as glyphosate, and interrow cultivation help reduce perennial-species densities regardless of tillage system. The earliest indication of tubular epithelial damage in experimentally induced nephrosis is the detection of the proximal tubule enzyme GGT in urine. Der Zurückgebogene Amarant (Amaranthus retroflexus), auch Zurückgekrümmter Fuchsschwanz oder Rauhaariger Amarant genannt, ist eine Pflanzenart innerhalb der Familie der Fuchsschwanzgewächse (Amaranthaceae). Hemodialysis was used successfully to treat a foal with presumed oxytetracycline nephrotoxicosis. CYSDV was first detected in cucurbit crops in the United Arab Emirates in 1982 (Hassan and Duffus, 1991) It was found in the Arabic peninsula both in outdoor melon and watermelon crops and in indoor cucumber crops. Patented 1,2-diazine derivatives with agrochemical applications. Seed buried by previous tillage may also persist for several years and continue to be a source of arable-response species in no-tillage systems. Surface topography influences the emergence location of Ab. Amaranths are branching broad-leaved plants with egg-shaped or rhombic leaves which may be smooth or covered in tiny hairs. Because tillage greatly alters the environment where weed species survive, altering tillage systems favors certain life cycles over others. Weed species with different life cycles have different requirements for seed germination, seedling establishment, growth, and reproduction. It requires a blood urea and creatinine estimation and a urinalysis for differentiation.
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